Senate Intelligence Report -- III F. Carter Page Section ALL


F. Carter Page

Introduction and Findings

Carter Page was the only member of the Trump Campaign 's foreign policy advisers publicly identified as a Russia" expert.''
Page had previously lived in Russia and worked on Russia policy and energy issues. For these reasons, Page was a subject of interest to Russian officials, including Russian intelligence, which had in previous years interacted with Page. As such, the Committee sought to understand Page 's role on the Trump Campaign, his connection to the Russian intelligence services, and any connection between him and Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.

Prior to joining the Trump Campaign, Page communicated with, met, and provided private business information to Russian SVR officers in New York, whom the FBI believed were acting in a manner consistent with attempts to recruit Page.
Page later was referred to as" Male- 1'' in the complaint filed against three SVR officers in January 2015 in federal court in the Southern District of New York. Page later publicly identified himself as" Male-1" on several occasions, including to Russian officials in New York at the United Nations General Assembly.


Trump named Page as one of his foreign policy advisers as part of an effort to bolster the public perception that Trump had substantive foreign policy advisers in early 2016.
Trump met once with a group of these and other foreign policy and national security advisers on March 31, 2016. Page was not in attendance and never subsequently met with Trump. The Committee found no evidence to suggest that Page made significant contributions to speeches or policy initiatives for the Trump Campaign.

In July 2016, Page was invited to make two addresses in Russia, including an address during the commencement ceremonies at Moscow 's New Economic School( NES), an invitation extended because of his perceived role in the Trump Campaign.
At the commencement ceremony, Page had a brief exchange with then-Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich, about whom the Committee has counterintelligence concerns. In December 2016, following his separation from the Campaign the previous September, Page traveled to Moscow again, where he had a longer meeting over dinner with Dvorkovich.

The Committee found no indication that Page had useful Campaign information for the Russian intelligence services to extract, nor meaningful influence for them to exploit.
Despite Page having little influence on the Campaign, interested Russians may have perceived him as more closely connected than he was. Page was receptive to Russian outreach, and the of the NES speech in 2016 made clear that they invited Page because of his perceived role in the Trump Campaign.

The Trump Campaign directed Page 's separation from the Campaign in September 2016 because of the unwanted media attention he was generating.

Many media reports about Page 's activities in Russia in 2016, as well as almost all assertions in the" Steele dossier,'' remain unverified.
In addition, Page 's claims to the Campaign regarding his activities in Moscow remain unsubstantiated.

Background on Page and Limitations on the Committee 's Investigation

Between 2004 or 2004 and 2007, Carter Page lived and worked in Moscow.
Page worked for Merrill Lynch at the time, and told the Committee that his primary client was the Russian state-owned energy firm Gazprom.

Page, along with other individuals formally associated with the Trump Campaign, was a target of interest for foreign governments seeking to gather information on the Campaign.
Page also advocated for better relations with Russia, a position in concert with Moscow 's official perspective and consistent with candidate Trump 's minimalist posture that sought better relations with Moscow.

[ REDACTED] The Committee had some limited insight into the Russian government and[ REDACTED] interest in Page:[ REDACTED]




The SCO Report cited an email from Russian Press Secretary Dmitry Peskov responding to an inquiry about whether Peskov wished to facilitate introductions for Page to Russian officials during Page 's July 2016 visit, to which Peskov responded," I have read about[ Page].
Specialists say that he is far from being the main one. So I better not initiate a meeting in the Kremlin.''

The Committee interviewed Page and members of the Trump Campaign who interacted with Page.
The Committee also reviewed communications and other documents related to Page. The interviews and materials did not provide a thorough understanding of all of his activities while in Russia during his two visits in 2016.

The Committee had significant challenges in its attempt to understand Page 's activities, including his role as a foreign policy adviser to the Trump Campaign.
After weeks of negotiation and an eventual Committee subpoena, Page produced some electronic documents, some of which included his own annotations and alterations to the original document form, and sat for an interview that lasted six and a half hours. Page 's responses to basic questions were meandering, avoidant, and involved several long diversions. Despite the meticulous records Page kept on his personal hard drive detailing his daily routines, he was unable to recall any details of his trips to Moscow, or the names of senior Russian officials with whom he met, despite using his engagements with them to build his credentials within the Campaign.

Page and U.S. and Russian Intelligence Services

Prior to 2016, Page had encounters with both U.S. and Russian intelligence.

i. Page and U.S. Intelligence Prior to 2016

Page voluntarily met with U.S. intelligence officials and law enforcement, from CIA and FBI, on several occasions from roughly 2008 through 2013.
He told the Committee that" the CIA guys would invite me out to lunch from time to time in New York.'' In a letter to then-Director Comey of the FBI, he acknowledged," Having interacted with members of the U.S. intelligence community including the FBI and CIA for many decades.''





Page and Russian Intelligence

Page told the Committee that he knew of no instance where he was approached by Russian intelligence officers related to the 2016 U.S. election.
However, the Russian intelligence services had previously approached Page years prior to his involvement with the Trump Campaign in an effort to explore an intelligence collection relationship with him. After the FBI publicly exposed those Russian intelligence officers, Page told the FBI that he was" on the books'' with the Russian intelligence services

Beginning in New York City in 2008, Page was approached by, and met with, Russians he was later informed were intelligence officers.
According to the SCO Report, Page met with Alexander Bulatov, a Russian official assigned to the New York Consulate, and" later learned that Bulatov was a Russian intelligence officer.'' In 2013, another Russian intelligence officer, Victor Podobnyy, similarly formed a relationship with Page and met with him numerous times.

In 2015, Buryakov, Podobnyy, and a third Russian intelligence officer, Igor Sporyshev, were indicted for conspiring to act as unregistered agents of a foreign government.
In the complaint, FBI recordings. of the Russians in April 2013 reveal them. speaking disparagingly of" Male-I'' and of their attempted use of Male-I as an intelligence source for Russia.

According to the complaint, FBI agents interviewed Page in June 2013, where he described meeting Podobnyy at a conference in New York City as well as subsequent emails and encounters, where he shared reports about energy matters.

Page deduced he was Male-I when he read the 2015 complaint.
He has since then openly referred to himself as Male-I, including in his interview with the Committee. In March 2017, Page · suggested to the FBI that he had referred to himself as Male-l in a meeting with a Russian official at the United Nations( UN). When the FBI later asked him about this in a subsequent interview, Page stated that everyone in Russia knew he was Male-I, and that his encounter with the Russians at the UN did not portray Page correctly and that Page wanted nothing to do with espionage.

In his interviews with the FBI, Page described his relationship with Russian intelligence as being" on the books,'' a colloquial term for being an intelligence source.
During a March 30, 2017, interview, FBI agents attempted to explain how the Russian intelligence services worked, and suggested that the Russian intelligence services had been tracking Page since his years living in Russia. The agents further, and specifically, stated that the[ REDACTED] might consider Page either an unwitting or witting" on the record'' source for intelligence gathering. Page questioned the assessment, yet said" I 'm sure I 'm on the books,'' and" they know who I am.'' The following day, the FBI again asked Page if he knew what it meant to be" on the books.'' Page reiterated that he considered himself to be" on the books,'' but objected to any characterization that he was" working with'' the Russian intelligence services.

Page and the Trump Campaign

Ed Cox, chairman of the New York Republican Party, first met Page around 2008, when they both worked on the McCain presidential campaign.
Cox recalled also encountering Page at Council on Foreign Relations events in New York, where both were members. On December 31, 2015, Page emailed Cox, stating that he was" cautiously optimistic that the next Administration might finally offer a change of direction in U.S.-Russia relations,'' and that" recent statements by Trump give me renewed hope.'' He asked if Cox had any recommendations" as to how one might be support[ Trump], including by becoming one of his delegates.'' Attached to the email was a draft opinion piece by Page that he wrote for Global Policy, titled" Trump, Putin and the Possible End of the Second Cold War,'' that concluded," Trump 's stance toward Russia reflects optimism for a fresh approach, and this could serve as an important legacy of his candidacy.'' The next day, Cox forwarded the email along with the attachment to Corey Lewandowski, introducing him to Page. On January 2, 2016, Lewandowski responded," happy to meet anytime,'' and the two arranged to meet at Trump Tower on January 12, 2016.

Lewandowski told the Committee he did not recall the meeting, but said it was possible that it was among the many meetings he held at the time.
Sam Clovis, the national co-chair of the Trump Campaign who served as the policy director for the Campaign, recalled the meeting, which included Michael Glassner, another Campaign official at the time. Clovis told the Committee:" I showed up in New York one morning early and I walked up into the fifth floor area[ at Trump Tower]... Corey[ Lewandowski] and Michael[ Glassner] are there, and there 's a guy with them, and Corey says: This is Carter Page; get to know him; he wants to help.'' Clovis and Page discussed Page 's background and desire to help the Campaign. Later that day, Page sent an email thanking Clovis and Glassner for the meeting, and forwarding them the draft opinion piece.

On February 17, 2016, Page emailed Clovis, Glassner, and Lewandowski to say that Page had heard that Trump was in the process of assembling a foreign policy advisory team.
Page wrote that he wished to" express my interest in contributing as a member of that team. Although I have little to gain from this personally, I 'm committed to supporting Mr. Trump 's · efforts to make America great again.'' He included a bio highlighting his academic and professional experience on energy and foreign policy issues, including Russia. Clovis responded the following day, suggesting that Page call him for additional information.

The Trump Campaign 's National Security Advisory Committee is Formed

On March 21, 2016, Trump released five names of his foreign policy advisers, including Page, during a meeting with The Washington Post editorial board.
The Committee interviewed several members of the Trump Campaign to understand how this group was formed, and how Page came to be one of the original members.

Ten days later, Trump held his first-and only-meeting of the Campaign with his" national security team,'' which included several of the previously announced foreign policy advisers, at the Trump International Hotel in Washington.
Page was traveling and did not attend.

As described elsewhere in this Report, the formation of a foreign policy and national security team was undertaken in large part to respond to public scrutiny over the lack of expertise on the Campaign.
Clovis recalled in particular that Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump asked him in mid-March to start assembling this team, which would be formed around then-Senator Jeff Sessions. Clovis recalled that the Campaign was" desperate to get the press off our backs.''

In early March 2016, Clovis started assembling names for all of the planned policy teams, including foreign policy and national security and conveyed a policy team" matrix'' via email to Kushner, lvanka Trump, Lewandowski, Glassner and Stephen Miller on March 6, which included Page under" Foreign Policy.''
On March 16, Clovis emailed Kushner, Ivanka Trump, Lewand9wski, and Glassner;" As you asked for today, find attached the list of those from whom I have commitments to the team.'' Clovis included short bios, about which he added," The abbreviated versions hardly capture the accomplishments of these individuals.'' This appears to be the first time this group is referred to as the" National Security Advisory Committee,'' chaired by Sessions. The list includes Page 's academic credentials, his current role as" Founder and Managing Partner'' of Global Capital Energy, LLC; and his previous position as" Deputy Branch Manager, Merrill Lynch, Moscow.'' Two days later, Kushner responded to Clovis, asking," How would you rate this team? Will people think its[ sic] impressive? '' To which Clovis responded:

I like the team well enough.
... I do n't think we can play ·" match the list'' right now. I have interviewed, vetted and have paperwork on all the folks on our list and am very comfortable working with them. Some of them are already sending inputs that are most helpful.

On March 21, Clovis submitted an updated list of eight individuals for potential" National Security/Foreign Policy Team Recruiting,'' where he stated that he had" secured NDAs[ non-disclosure agreements] from the following individuals.''
The list again included Page. Clovis told the Committee that all eight original members of the Campaign 's National Security Advisory Committee were people who had previously reached out to the Campaign, to either him or Lewandowski, Glassner, or other members of the Trump family. Clovis vetted the advisers by conducting Google searches on them" to make sure we did n't have any immediate land mines out there... but there was an urgency because we were just getting the press. I think that the urgency of that overcame a more deliberate approach.'' Clovis added," Those eight people were the eight that I could find in that short a notice that I could put on there.''

Trump Campaign staff interviewed by the Committee downplayed the significance of the National Security Advisory Committee as well as Page 's role.
J.D. Gordon, a former director of the Trump Campaign 's National Security Advisory Committee told the Committee that it was" just an advisory committee. They did n't even set foot in our[ Campaign] office, did n't have a badge, did n't have a email account.'' Hope Hicks, the Campaign 's press secretary, told the Committee," I think there was an understanding that this group was put together when nobody wanted to be associated with our campaign or our candidate.'' Of Page, she said:

I think describing him as an" adviser'' is inaccurate.
I do n't know who he was advising, but he was not advising the candidate or the policy team.... He was just a person whose name got slapped on a list for a committee because we did n't have anybody else

Nevertheless, in some instances, Page may have been given reason to believe his access extended further than it did.
On March 22, 2016, Clovis emailed Page and other members of the foreign policy and national security advisory team. Clovis wrote:

Gentlemen, Expect a call from Mr. Trump today at some point: I was asked for your numbers this morning.
Given the events of the day, expect to be asked some questions about what we need to be doing about the unfolding events.

Subsequent communications indicate that Page prepared and waited for the call, which did not.
take place. As noted above, Page never met or spoke with Trump.

Page On The Campaign

Almost immediately after the March 21, 2016, announcement of the advisory committee, the media began to focus on Page 's Russia-related interests.
On March 23, 2016, Page sent an email to Clovis about media outreach regarding Page 's role as a Campaign adviser and his Russia background.

J.D. Gordon told the Committee that Page attended several informal gatherings of the foreign policy and national security advisory team.
In the first week of June 2016, Page attended a dinner with other Campaign advisers, and in late June or early July 2016, Page attended an advisory committee meeting at the Capitol Hill Club in Washington. Sessions attended the event and spoke with Page briefly. In August 2016, Page attended a dinner hosted by Keith Kellogg, another Campaign adviser, at Kellogg 's home that was also attended by the other foreign policy advisers.

Page frequently emailed members of the Trump Campaign on Russia policy matters.
For example, on January 30, 2016, before being announced as a foreign policy adviser, Page emailed Glassner and Clovis, and copied Lewandowski. He wrote:

Following up on our discussions about Russia earlier this month and Fox 's obnoxious failed comments regarding the Putin-Trump relationship this week, I wanted to share with you a few thoughts and suggestions about some massive additional potential upside for the campaign.
I spent the past week in Europe and have been in discussions with some individuals with close ties to the Kremlin. The possible game-changing effect which Mr. Trump could have in bringing the end o f the new Cold War that Obama and George W Bush managed to create in recent years has literally brought a new exceptionally high level of optimism in Moscow and across the country. Given the essential strategic position that Russia has in the world as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, etc., the effect of Mr. Trump could be nothing short of monumental. Through my discussions with these high level contacts, it is their belief that a direct meeting in Moscow between Mr. Trump and President Putin could be arranged

In his interview with the Committee, Page claimed that he could not remember which well-connected individuals to whom he was referring in this email.

In the same email, Page also sent a notice of his upcoming attendance at a one-day J.P. Morgan Securities" Gazprom Investor Day'' in New York.
In the email Page wrote:

the US.
Government 's failed sanctions policy has severely hindered the development of Gazprom in recent years with potential catastrophic consequences for the people of Russia. They too are eagerly awaiting the massive changes which Mr. Trump has readily positioned himself to soon bring.

Clovis replied later that day, thanked Page, and said that he would be in touch the following week.

On February 7, 2016, Page again emailed Clovis, Glassner and Lewandowski, noting that Forbes had ranked Putin as the most powerful world leader, and that, in Russia, relationships are very important.
Page continued:" As I have alluded to before, there is no question that a Trump visit to Moscow and related meetings with Putin would prove to be the most important campaign event in the history of U.S. politics.''

On February 17, 2016, Page wrote an email to the same three Campaign officials regarding the February 2014 release of the phone conversation between the former Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland and U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey Pyatt, a story he would repeatedly cite as an example of Clinton 's mismanagement of foreign policy.
During this 2014 call, Nuland recorded discussing the composition of the Ukraine opposition as well as criticizing the European Union support for Ukraine. The link to the released phone conversation was first posted on Twitter by an aide to then-Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin.

On March 16, 2016, the Trump Campaign released a brief ten-second video on Instagram featuring Hillary Clinton barking followed by a clip of Putin laughing that concluded:" We do n't need to be a punch line!
Make America Great Again! '' Kremlin spokesperson, Dmitry Peskov responded publicly the next day:" It 's an open secret for us that demonizating Russia and whatever is linked to Russia is unfortunately a mandatory hallmark of America 's election campaign.'' Peskov 's comment was widely covered in the U.S. press., Page sent an email on March 17, 2016, to Clovis linking to a Reuters article writing:

I know people who work closely with the[ spokesman] from the Kremlin.
... Perhaps the more relevant responses to yesterday 's Instagram video were many of the amazing comments written in Russian. Clearly there 's an extraordinary level of excitement from the people of that country regarding the new potential for relations between our 2 global powerhouses. Make the World Great Again

Also on March 17, 2016, Page sent Clovis one of several documents that Page created for the Campaign, seemingly at his own initiative, which he referred to as both the" President 's Daily Brief' and the" Candidate 's Daily Briefing.''
These documents presented Page 's analysis in a bulleted briefing slide format, and covered a range of topics, but often focused on Russia. The briefing slides and accompanying emails from Page portrayed Putin as a victor in Syria, complimented Russian forces ' stabilizing role in Syria, and criticized the U.S. military 's lack of effectiveness in Syria as well as U: S." meddling.'' The documents, which also covered Ukraine, were critical of NATO, particularly regarding its strategy of deterring Russia, and advocated for a strong personal relationship between the top leadership in Washington and Moscow. The Committee found no evidence indicating that these documents were used by the Campaign.

On May 9, 2016, Page emailed Gordon a list of more than ten examples of media requests he had received in which he confirmed his role as an adviser to the Campaign but otherwise offered" no comment.''
In the same email, Page stated he had received offers for" speaking engagements in Russia and the Middle East,'' including from a" close advisor of President Putin,'' Sergey Karaganov, and asked for a copy of the approval form for Campaign advisers to seek approval for such events. Page told the Committee that he met Karaganov in the late 1990s and again when Page lived in Moscow from 2004 to 2007, but he provided no clear explanation for the invitation he was referring to in the May 9 email, but suggested that it may have come as a result of Karaganov 's involvement with a Russian university. In the late April 2016 email exchange that led to Page 's invitation to speak at the New Economic School( NES) in Moscow( described below), Andrej Krickovic, an academic acquaintance of Page at the Moscow Higher School of Economics( HSE), offered to connect Page to Karaganov.

Karaganov has been a dean at the HSE since 2003 and has served as chairman of a Russian state-funded think tank, the Valdai Discussion Club since 2004.
Karaganov has also served as an adviser to the Kremlin and to President Putin, including as a foreign policy adviser to the Russian Presidential Administration from 2001 to 2013 and Chairman of the Russian Presidium on Foreign and Defense Policy. Karaganov is known for advising the Kremlin on Russian opportunities for expansionism, at U.S. expense, around the world.


Gordon responded to Page 's May 9 email later the same day and provided the speech and media forms requested.
Gordon expressed his gratitude, writing," If we had 10 Carter Pages... imagine what we could do! '' Gordon, however, also advised Page that all members of the advisory committee were" keeping a very low profile right now'' due to a George Papadopoulos interview that went poorly, as well as the transition of focus from the primary to general election.

Nevertheless, Page continued to draw media attention about his role in the Campaign and specifically his views on Russia.
On June 11, 2016, Gordon emailed Campaign officials Rick Dearborn and John Mashburn with the subject line" Carter Page, Gazprom & Media Engagement.'' Gordon discussed Page 's history of speaking with the press and suggested that while Page was generally helpful, he was" difficult to manage,'' especially as it related to the press. In the email, Gordon noted that he" wanted to draw your attention to National Review piece on Carter,'' which referred to Page as an" out-and-out Putinite,'' who is" tight with the Kremlin 's foreign-policy apparatus and has served as a vehement propagandist for it.'' Gordon also alluded to a recent inquiry to Page by The Washington Post 's Tom Hamburger and suggested that any resulting piece would be damaging to the Campaign.

The same day, Page initiated an email thread by writing to Hope Hicks including draft responses to questions posed to Page by The Washington Post.
Most of the questions focused on Page 's role in the Campaign and his views on Russia policy. Hicks forwarded the email to Stephen Miller and Lewandowski, asking," Can you please advise? I do n't know Carter well or the extent of his involvement.'' Shortly thereafter, on June 14, 2016, The Washington Post published the first article on the DNC hack. Although the article was never written by Hamburger nor about Page, Page emailed Hicks and Gordon with a link to the article, writing," Looks like Tom & Co concocted another fairytale instead of the original inaccurate attack job against DJT, me and my firm... at least so far.''

Page Travels to Russia, July 2016

Page sought and received approval from then-Trump Campaign manager Corey Lewandowski to travel to Russia in July 2016, in order to make two addresses at the NES in Moscow.
Lewandowski explicitly told Page this would be speaking in his own capacity and not related to the Campaign.

Page 's invitation from the NES was based solely on their perception of Page as an adviser to the Trump Campaign.
Page 's invitation to Russia was proffered by the rector of the NES, Shlomo Weber. Weber told the Committee that he had first heard of Page through two individuals at the HSE. The first of these individuals was his son, Yuval Weber, an American academic who was on the faculty of the HSE. The second was another academic whom Weber did not know as well, Andrej Krickovic, who was also at the HSE and had first met Page when Krickovic was an intern at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow and Page was working at Merrill Lynch in Moscow.

On April 25, 2016, Krickovic emailed Page with the subject line" Introducing Shlomo Weber,'' opening his email with:" It 's been a while since we last talked.
I 've been · following the news and did not have chance[ sic] to congratulate you on your new appointment. Great news! '' Krickovic further stated:

The reason I 'm writing you is to introduce Professor Shlomo Weber.
... He is interested in engaging with the Trump campaign on Russia issues. I do n't know Shlomo personally; but I am very good friends with Yuval Weber, his son... Yuval reached out to me to make the introduction to you. Do you still have the time to come to Russia these days? We 'd love for you to give a talk on US Russia relations, and your thoughts about how they could change under a Trump presidency.

Page responded the same day, but was noncommittal and concerned about speaking on Trump 's foreign policy before the policy was formed.

Page made reference to Trump 's upcoming foreign policy speech at the Mayflower Hotel, saying that it would" not give extensive details of the kind that you 've envisioned for such a talk.''
He also referred to the negative press he was already receiving and said:" So suffice to say, I need to be careful.'' Krickovic responded, expressing his understanding of Page 's" reluctance to speak publicly.... Perhaps after Mr. Trump wins and you are head of the Russia desk at State you can come and give a talk to our faculty.'' He concluded by asking Page let him know when next he 's in Moscow:" Perhaps we can even arrange a private meeting with our dean, Sergei Karaganov. As you know he has quite some influence in high places here. It would be really good to get a dialogue going.''

On April 26, Shlomo Weber emailed Page:" Thank you for your interest and the willingness to meet with me.
I look forward to getting together in Moscow next time you are there or otherwise connecting over the phone or video.'' Weber then stated:

Allow me to addthat1am a Russian-born US citizen and staunch Republican.
... I would be very happy to contribute my expertise on foreign and economic affairs... to a successful Republican presidential candidate.

Page responded that he had not yet finalized his plans to travel to Moscow, but that he would be in touch once he had.

On May 3, Shlomo Weber emailed Page again:" I understand that those are early days and I realize that you have multiple connections in Moscow.
I just would like to let you know that NES would be happy to host you.'' Page responded; asking for clarification if NES would be willing to pay for the travel for him to give a lecture. Page again noted that he was under media scrutiny and that he needed to be careful to" make sure I do n't create any perceived conflicts of interest in my firm 's dealings.'' Weber responded on May 12, 2016.

I talked with several people here and we would like to invite you to NES.
You can give a talk here and, possibly, in some other places. We will cover your travel and accommodation expenses. One of the options could be our graduation ceremony on July 8.

Page replied to Weber 's offer the same day and conditionally accepted the offer:" That sounds great Shlomo... Please note that we have some internal procedures for the campaign so I will need to get approval.''

Shlomo Weber told the Committee that:

There was some interest to see, to learn a little bit more about[ Trump] and his potential policy towards Russia was tremendous, so that 's what we thought, if somebody is working on his campaign, it could be of interest to Russia, for students, for[ the] general public... I thought that at this time that the campaign of then-candidate Trump was really lacking in expertise about foreign policy, and particularly about Russia.
And I just thought that maybe we informing the campaign about the Russian issues will be a good thing to do.

Weber also told the Committee," Because of[ Page 's] role in this campaign we thought it would be good,'' and said," the hope was we would hear something from a potentially important person.''

Page raised the invitation to speak at NES with J.D. Gordon and asked for the Campaign speech request forms, which Gordon provided him on May 14.
On May 16, Page emailed Gordon, Phares, and Clovis with a link to the speech President Obama gave at the NES commencement in 2009. Noting Obama 's NES speech, Page proposed that Candidate Trump take Page 's place at the upcoming event. Two days later, Page submitted the speech request form to Gordon.

A little over one month later, on June 19, 2016, Page emailed Gordon, Lewandowski and Hicks, copying Clovis, and stated:

I 'm resending this Campaign Advisor Speech Request Form which I submitted over a month ago.
... I 'm literally saying nothing about the campaign so I don' t think this administrative procedure is relevant in this case. But please let me know as soon as possible in case anyone might have any reservations.

Page also renewed his suggestion that Trump attend, stating''[ a] s I had also previously suggested, I 'm sure they would love to have Mr. Trump speak at this annual celebration.''
Page added:" Russia 's Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich is a board member and a graduate who will likely be in attendance.''


Regarding Page 's repeated requests, Gordon told the Committee:

[ Page] sent me the request.
I did not pass it on. But he started to ask me more about it, and I would still tell him it 's a bad idea. So eventually he went to the campaign leadership in New York and he got permission to go.

On June 19, 2016, Lewandowski wrote to Page:" Carter-- If you want to do this, it would be out side[ sic] of your role with the DJT for President campaign.
I am certain Mr. Trump will not be able to attend.''

Lewandowski told the Committee that he recalled the email on that day, because it was the day before he got" fired from the campaign.''
He said:

I was trying to be kind: I 'm certain Mr. Trump will not be able to attend you have no formal role in the campaign, so you asking me permission I do n't understand, because you do n't work for us.
You 've never signed a nondisclosure agreement. You do n't get paid by the campaign. You have no role in the campaign. So if you want to do this, it would be outside of your role with the DJI for President campaign, is what I was very clear.

Despite meeting Page briefly in January of that year, Lewandowski added:

[ A] n individual who I do n't think I had ever met before is asking for permission to go to a place to give a speech on something I know nothing about, and is not part of the team I 'm running, did n't raise a red flag to me because I did n't' have any authority to agree or not agree to let him do something.

As noted previously, the week before his departure for Moscow, Page attended a dinner meeting of the Campaign 's foreign policy and national security advisers at the Capitol Hill Club in Washington.
As the meeting was ending, Page had a brief encounter with Sessions, whom Page informed about his upcoming travel to Moscow to give a speech. According to Page, there was no meaningful response from Sessions.

Page was in Moscow from July 4, 2016, through July 9, 2016.
Near the start of his time in Moscow, Page had dinner with Shlomo Weber, Krickovic, and several others, some of whom were affiliated with NES and HSE. This was the first time Weber met with Page. Weber arrived over two hours late and could not recall to the Committee the specific substance of the discussions that night, but recalled that it generally dealt with U.S.-Russia relations and how the relationship might evolve. Weber recalled that while Page was in Moscow, Page made several references to Igor Sechin, but that he had no knowledge of any meeting between Page and Sechin in Moscow.

[ REDACTED] Sechin is the CEO of Rosneft, Russia 's larges oil company.
[ REDACTED]. He is widely referred to in open source reporting as being one of the most powerful figures inside Putin 's, inner circle. The information from the" Steele Dossier,'' discussed infra Vol. 5, Sec.. IV.B, asserted that Page had a meeting with Sechin during this July 2016 visit.

[ REDACTED] The committee has no further information or details about this reference.

Page told the Committee he met with Andrey Baranov, who he had known since his days living in Moscow and who, in 2016, was the head of investor relations for Rosneft, the company run by Sechin.
During the July visit, Page and Baranov met one evening at a Morgan Stanley social event to watch the European Cup. Page said no deals were discussed during this meeting, although he told the FBI that the subject of Sechin came up, but in an immaterial way.

On July 5, 2016, Page sent an email to Shlomo Weber and his assistant to ask them to remove reference to Page 's role as a Trump adviser on the school 's website announcing his role in the commencement.
However, Weber told the committee that throughout this process, Page gave the impression that he was an adviser to the Trump Campaign and that''[ n] obody ever doubted'' he was a Campaign adviser. Weber said that in the preparations for the speech, it was not clear whether he wanted to be mentioned as an adviser of the Campaign publicly and that the public interest in the election was" quite substantial at this juncture.''

[ REDACTED] There are indications that news of Page 's visit reached senior levels of the Kremlin.
Denis Klimentov became the press secretary of the NES in the fall of 2016. Page had repeated direct contact with Klimentov starting as early as his July 2016 trip to Moscow, most of which dealt with outreach to Russia press and journalists seeking to cover Page 's speech.[ REDACTED].

[ REDACTED] Klimentov 's brother and business partner, Dmitriy Klimentov, is a U.S.-based public relations consultant who is a former acting New York bureau chief for, the Russian news agency RIA Novosti.
Dmitriy Klimentov maintains regular contact with Dmitry Peskov, who is the Press Secretary for the President Putin. Dmitriy Klimentov told the FBI that he contacted Peskov about Page 's July visit, in the event Peskov wanted to facilitate any meetings. According to Klimentov, there was no interest in meeting Page and Peskov responded that Page was not high-level enough to meet.

Page gave two speeches in Moscow.
On July 7, he gave a speech to the NES that he titled," The Evolution of the World Economy: Trends and Potential.'' The speech was amplified online by Russian nationalist influencers, some of whom have significant ties to the Russian government and Russian intelligence services, and one of whom attended the event and asked Page a question regarding Trump and sanctions. The next day, at the commencement ceremonies, Page gave a short talk that he titled" Maximizing personal potential in uncertain times: past and future.'' Page made no mention of the U.S. 2016 presidential campaign in either set of prepared remarks.

At the second event, the commencement ceremonies on July 8, Page had a brief encounter with Dvorkovich.
According to Weber, who observed the encounter but was not close enough to hear what was said, the two shook hands and" talked for a couple of minutes.'' Page told the Committee his encounter with Dvorkovich lasted a" maximum[ of] 10 seconds,'' which he described as a" sort of a brief, in-passing moment,'' where Dvorkovich gave" warm pleasantries.''

While in Moscow, Page emailed Trump Campaign staff member Tera Dahl, copying J.D. Gordon, to inform them that he was overseas and could not attend a meeting with a European delegation by the Transatlantic Parliamentary Group on Terrorism that hoped to meet with the Clinton and Trump Campaigns.
Page wrote:

On a related front, I 'll send you guys a readout soon regarding some incredible insights and outreach I 've received from a few Russian legislators and senior members of the Presidential Administration here.
Suffice to say that after watching their national economy and relationships with Europe get derailed by Washington mismanagement with disastrous consequences over recent years, Russians from the highest levels of government to the average man on the street have a new optimism and hope for the future based on Mr. Trump 's common sense statements about his foreign policy approaches over the past year.

Later the same day, Page emailed Gordon, Dahl and Walid Phares with the subject line:" Feedback from Russia- Executive Summary,'' to which he attached a document with the same title.
The document began with the statement." On Thursday and Friday( July 7 & 8, 2016), campaign advisor Carter Page presented before gatherings at the New Economic School( NES) in Moscow including their 2016 Commencement Ceremony.'' The first bullet stated:

Russian Deputy Prime Minister and NES Board Member Arkady Dvorkovich also spoke, before the event.
In a private conversation, Dvorkovich expressed strong support for Mr. Trump and a desire to work together toward devising better solutions in response to the vast range of current international problems. Based on feedback from a diverse array of sources close to the Russian Presidential Administration, it was readily apparent that this sentiment is widely held at all levels of the government.

The Committee asked Page · about the source of his" incredible insights,'' the private conversation with Dvorkovich, and the" diverse array of sources close to the Russian Presidential Administration'' that he wrote about in this email.
As was the case with his January 30, 2016 email to Glassner, Clovis, and Lewandowski, Page had difficulty recalling his allegedly high- level engagements. He told the Committee that he was referring to: the exchange with academics over dinner on July 5; one encounter he had with a staff member who worked for a Duma( Russian parliament) member and whose name he could not recall; and the handshake with Dvorkovich at the commencement ceremony on July 8. Page told the Committee that the unnamed Duma staffer and Dvorkovich were the only two people that he directly interacted with in the Russian government during the trip. Page allowed that his written comments from the email relating to outreach from Russian legislators" may have been an exaggeration.''

Page 's visit to Moscow in July drew international media attention.
While still in Moscow, Page emailed Gordon and Hicks, copying Clovis:

I wanted to give you a quick heads up about a few developments during my Moscow trip... I have been doing everything possible to keep a low profile... and to the extent people do learn I 'm here, ensuring they all understand that my visit is outside of my role with the campaign.
But given the vast outpouring of support for Mr. Trump and the strong social network in Russia, a few journalists caught wind of my presence in Russia and have been following my every move closely. As always, I have been avoiding any media interview until otherwise instructed.

Gordon forwarded the email to Mashburn and Dahl, with the comment:" FYI.
We probably ought to print this out for our files.''

Page 's July speeches in Moscow were monitored by American businessman Paul Erickson, Russian national Maria Butina and Russian government official Alexander Torshin.
A July 18, 2016 exchange between Butina and Torshin revealed Butina 's interest in Page:

Butina: Right now I would rather meet with Carter Page.
He 's Trump 's advisor for the RF and heads the pro-Russian group. He was in Moscow at a meeting with Putin last year. Can you find out how we feel about him?

Torshin: I 'll try, but tomorrow.
Not long ago one of his advisors was in Moscow. I do n't remember the lasi name.

Butina:... Thank you very much for the information.
Carter Page is his name. This is very important. I have not yet agreed to a meeting with him. It depends on your opinion.

Page attended the GOP convention held in Cleveland from July 18 through July 21, 2016.
At one of the receptions, Page and Gordon had a brief encounter with Sergei Kislyak, Russia 's Ambassador to the United States. Page told the Committee it was the first time he had met Kislyak, and that Page offered the Ambassador his business card, but that the Ambassador did not offer Page his card in return.

The media attention from Page 's July 2016 visit to Moscow followed Page until after he was dismissed from the Campaign in September 2016.

The media attention regarding Page 's travel to Moscow also drew political attention.
On August 27, 2016, Senator Harry Reid, Senate Minority leader, wrote and publicly released a letter to FBI Director James Comey. The letter expressed Reid 's concern about Russian interference in the 2016 elections and quoted former Acting Director of CIA Michael Morrell, declaring candidate Trump an" unwitting agent'' of Russia and the Kremlin. While naming no Trump Campaign officials, the letter does state:

For example, questions have been raised about whether a Trump advisor who has been highly critical of U.S. and European economic sanctions on Russia, and who has conflicts of interest due to investments in Russian energy conglomerate Gazprom, met with high-ranking sanctioned individuals while in Moscow in July of2016, well after Trump became the presumptive nominee.
( The same individual recently broke precedent by giving a speech critical of U.S. policy while in Moscow.) Any such meetings should be investigated and made a part of the public record.

Following his return from Moscow in July, Page continued to email his opinions on media reports regarding Russia to Campaign staff and other Campaign advisory committee members.
His emails, which covered topics ranging from the hack of the DNC to the U.S. role in Ukraine, were often conspiratorial and generally reflective of Russian policy positions:

On July 28, 2016, Page emailed Hicks and copied Clovis and Gordon about being contacted by a" barrage of reporters over recent days.''
Page wrote that he would" continue avoiding all interview requests'' but continued to offer the Campaign his" help in the media department.'' Hicks forwarded the email to Stephen Miller, and asked," Who can weigh in here? '' Miller responded:''[ N] one of our FP guys should be doing any interviews on[ R] ussia right now:'' To which Hicks responded:" Agreed ! ! ! ! ''

On September 13, 2016, shortly before he was separated from the Campaign, Page sent an email to the other Campaign foreign policy and national security advisers and several Campaign staff.
In the email, Page commented on an upcoming event which he planned to attend at the Council on Foreign Relations that would feature then-Vice President Joe Biden. Page proposed asking Biden a question regarding his son 's work in Ukraine. Another Campaign adviser, Bert Mizusawa responded the next day:" Mentioning Biden 's children could backfire.'' To which Kubic added:" I agree with Bert- not sure you should use his son to bait him.''

Page Leaves the Trump Campaign

Page 's profile in the U.S. media increased following his July 2016 visit and speeches in Moscow.
It was not until September 2016, however, that the Campaign moved to dismiss him because he had become a media distraction.

On August 2, 2016, in response to yet another media query about Page which Page appears to have accepted without permission, Hicks reached out to Stephen Miller, Dearborn, and Jason Miller in order to find someone who could speak with Page about the interview.
Stephen Miller responded, writing:" We need to stop this,'' to which Hicks responded:" I do not know Carter. He 's sent me a few emails, but I think someone with authority should remind him he does not speak for the campaign, or Mr. Trump and we strongly advise against this( all via phone).''

Late on September 22, 2016, Michael Isikoff emailed Jason Miller with questions about Page, prior to publishing a story about alleged U.S. intelligence focus on Page and his role in the Trump Campaign.
Miller sent an email to Hicks and other Campaign staff, stating:" I 'm pretty sure we 've answered re: Carter Page l00x previously, but I forgot the answer.'' Hicks responded to Miller:" He has no role. We are not aware of any of his activities, past or present''

On September 23, Isikoff published the article, which generated additional media queries about Page to the Campaign.
In an email regarding the article Stephen Miller wrote:" We should say he 's not an advisor, he 's never advised Mr. Trump, and has made no contribution to the c1: tmpaign. Speaking for myself, I 've never spoken to him, and would n't recognize him if he were sitting next to me.'' Hicks emailed Dearborn, Stephen Miller, Clovis, and Jason Miller:" For the final time, we need to cut ties with Carter... Please advise as to how we do this logistically and Jason and I will strategize on not looking reactionary! '' Dearborn responded:" Sam, you know him best yes? I 've never met or talked with him.''

On the same day, September 23, 2016, Page reached out to Hicks, Jason Miller, and others with a proposal for a long press statement, formatted under the official Trump Campaign , that addressed the press queries about him.
Fifteen minutes later, Jason Miller responded to Page 's email," Carter- let 's talk in the morning. I had a different direction in mind.''

On September 25, 2016, Kellyanne Conway, then-Campaign manager; publicly stated that Page was" certainly not part of the campaign I 'm running.''
In a forwarded email to Hicks, Conway wrote," Mr. Trump saw this segment and called me to say he has no idea who Carter Page is and wants to be sure he has never met him. May be best to check that he did not actually meet with him at any point and be sure Clovis, et. al[ sic] remove Page 's name from materials, website.'' Hicks responded, incorrectly:" He did meet with him one time in March · at the old post office with a group of about 12 other people. They have never interacted or spoken since.'' As noted previously, Page did not attend the publicized meeting of the other national security and foreign policy advisers with Trump on March 31, 2016.

The Campaign made no formal statement severing its relationship with Page.
According to Clovis, Jason Miller communicated Page 's termination to him. Clovis testified to the Committee:" The last I left it with the campaign was Jason Miller was going to take care of that. My job was to tell Carter to knock it off, as a person who knew him. As far as I know, Jason was the one that laid down the law to him.''

Very early on September 26, 2016, Page sent an email to Eric Trump and copying numerous other Campaign staff and advisers telling him that:" I wanted you to know that I have decided to take a leave of absence from my work on the campaign.''
He attached a letter, dated the day before, that he said he intended to send to FBI Director James Comey. Eric Trump forwarded this email to Hicks with the message:" I know nothing of this guy. Do you? '' Hicks responded:

Know of him.
He was listed on an initial foreign policy adviser board Sam Clovis put together in the spring. He has never met or spoken to DJT or anyone on the campaign except Sam for that matter. It has now come to light he has ties to the Russian government so of course people are pushing it out as if he is the person whispering in DJT 's ear. Nonsense. Regardless, we requested he resign. I have no idea why he is directing that to you.

As noted, aspects of Hicks 's statement are incorrect- although Page never met the candidate, he did meet occasionally and often communicated with various members of the Campaign staff.

The letter Page addressed to FBI Director Comey, dated September 25, 2016 stated, in part:" I am writing to request the FBI 's prompt end of the reported inquiry regarding my personal trip to Russia in July 2016- an investigation which has been widely mentioned in the media.''
Among other things, Page noted:" I have not met this year with any sanctioned official in Russia despite the fact that there are no restrictions on U.S. persons speaking with such individuals.'' He also stated in the letter that he had" interacted with members of the U.S. intelligence community, including the FBI and CIA for many decades.''

The first FISA order on Page was approved October 21, 2016.

Media attention on Page, and Page 's continuing engagement with the media, continued to distract the Campaign into the presidential Transition.
On the day that Page announced his" leave of absence'' to Eric Trump, he gave a long interview to The Washington Post. Also on that same day, Page emailed a link to the article to Clovis, Hicks, Miller, Bert Mizusawa and Joseph Schmitz, and stated:" now that I 've finally begun to defend myself, we 're starting to quickly set the record straight for everyone.'' Page also asked Clovis to send him a copy of the non-disclosure agreement( NDA) he recalled signing when he joined the Campaign as an adviser. Hicks forwarded the email back to Clovis with the request:" Please make sure his NDA was in fact counter signed. Send him a copy and please ask him to stop talking. He is not being helpful. He has never spoken to or met Mr. Trump.''

Page Returns to Russia, December 2016

Following the election and his separation from the Campaign, Page returned to Moscow in mid-December 2016.
Page told the Committee that he paid his own way to Moscow in December. Shlomo Weber, who saw Page while he was in Moscow, told the Committee he did not know why Page visited.

On December 12, 2016, Page made a live televised presentation from the auditorium of the Rossiya Segodnya International Information Agency, which is a news organization of the Russian government.
Denis Klimentov, who in December was the press secretary for the NES, told the FBI that Page contacted the news agency on his own, and the agency enthusiastically accepted, based on Page 's notoriety by that time.

While Weber insisted that the NES had nothing to do with Page 's December visit, he did accept Page 's request to introduce him at the public speech, which was sparsely attended,: mostly by Russian and international journalists.
Video of the event shows that, among the of Russia state media that appear behind Page on the electronic screen, the NES also appears.

Page 's speech included criticisms of Bill and Hillary Clinton, as well as a reference to" conspiracy theories about Wikileaks used to distract from disastrous information revealed on her illegal mail server.''
Page praised Rex Tillerson, who had been nominated to be Secretary of State, and inserted a reference to Igor Sechin, who Page stated he" did n't meet... but it would have been a great honor.'' Page stated that there was" nothing there'' on reports of Russia 's intervention in the U.S. presidential election. Page also said, when asked about whether he 's met with Trump," I 've certainly been in a number of meetings with him.''

Weber convened a small dinner for Page during this visit, which included Klimentov and a Vice Rector of NES.
Weber said that once Page arrived in Russia, Page asked that Weber invite Deputy Prime Minister Dvorkovich to meet with him, which Weber did, not expecting Dvorkovich to accept. According to Weber, Page made the request because," it would be good to discuss the future relationship under the new president.'' Dvorkovich was the only request Page made.

Weber said he was" shocked'' that Dvorkovich showed up.
He did not stay for the full dinner, but only for about 30 to 35 minutes. Weber recalled that Page did not speak much, but that Dvorkovich spoke of''[ f] uture relationships'' and the''[ e] conomic relationship'' between Russia and the United States. Weber told the Committee that although the" economic relationship'' and" difficulties of the relationship'' were discussed, sanctions were not explicitly mentioned. Dvorkovich also" explained that the Russia would like to be a friend of the United States.''

Page told the Committee he once again met with Andrey Baranov of Rosneft during his December 2016 trip.

The information produced by Page for the Committee does not include many details of his time in Moscow, in either July or December, nor was Page able to account for much of his time on the ground in Moscow in his interview with the Committee.
The Committee has no further insight into Page 's other meetings or activities there. 6. Page During the Transition

Page told the Committee that he" sent a note'' and" talked with a few people in the transition, that if I could help in any way, you know, I would be open to that.''
According to the SCO Report:

On November 14, 2016,[ Page] submitted an application to the Transition Team that inflated his credentials and experiences, stating that in his capacity as a Trump Campaign foreign policy advisor he had met with" top world leaders'' and" effectively responded to diplomatic outreach efforts from senior government officials in Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Africa,[ and] the Americas.''
Page received no response from the Transition team.

Twice during the Transition Page was explicitly asked in writing by Donald McGahn, who at the time remained counsel to the Trump Campaign, to stop making misrepresentations of his association with the Trump Campaign in the media.
On December 22, McGahn sent Page a letter instructing Page to stop associating himself with the Campaign. On December 25, 2016, Page sent a lengthy email to Hicks, copying McGahn, K.T. McFarland, and Keith Kellogg. While the email reprises and expands on Page 's objections to the way he perceived himself to having been treated, it includes in one section:

A long list of top U.S. foreign policy leaders have contacted me to offer their support to the Trump Administration 's agenda.
The same holds for even more senior Russian leaders, but I wo n't mention them in writing out of risk of some new bogus media controversy or federal investigation.

On January 16, 2017, McGahn again wrote to Page, citing the previous letter from December 22, 2016.
He wrote:

Given that you have no role with Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., or the President-Elect 's Transition Team, or with any other entity associated with Mr. Trump, we ask that you immediately cease suggesting to anyone that you are anything other than a former member of an advisory committee who never actually met with the President-Elect.

Page in the" Steele Dossier''

Page is featured prominently in what is referred to as the Steele dossier, materials prepared in 2016 by former[ REDACTED] officer Christopher Steele.
Of the 17 reports that comprise the 35-page publicly available Steele dossier, first released in its entirety by BuzzFeed on January 10, 2017, Page is named in eight of them.

Regarding assertions in the Steele dossier about Page, the Committee heard testimony from Michael Cohen that he never met Page.
Page told the committee he never met Paul Manafort, but included him only once on a group email, for which he was chastised by others on the Campaign. He told the Committee he never met, nor" heard of,'' Igor Diveykin. Page has publicly and repeatedly denied meeting with Igor Sechin. Other than the dossier 's assertions that Page traveled to Moscow in July 2016 and served as a foreign policy adviser to Trump-facts which were readily available in news reports at the time of their inclusion in the dossier-the Committee did not find any information that corroborates the allegations related to Page in the dossier. For more information on the dossier, see infra Vol. 5, Sec. IV.B.
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